B/d barrels per day (measure of petroleum production).
B/l bill of lading
B/p or bop balance of payments.
Backfreight the owners of a ship are entitled to payment as freight for merchandise returned through the fault of either the consignees or the consignors. Such payment, which is over and above the normal freight, is called backfreight.
Backhaul a deviation to move cargo on the return leg of a voyage for the purpose of minimizing ballast mileage and thereby reducing transportation costs.
Backing (wind) The changing of the wind direction, opposite of veering. Clockwise in the southern hemisphere, counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
Backing A Sail to push a sail out so that the wind fills the opposite side
Backsplice A method of weaving the end of a rope to keep it from unraveling.
Backstay a support wire that runs from the top of the mast to the stern
Backstay Standing rigging from the mast to the deck behind the mast.
Backwinded The state of a sail with the wind pushing on the wrong side of it, causing it to be pushed away from the wind.
Bagged cargo various kinds of commodities usually packed in sacks or in bags, such as sugar, cement, milk powder, onion, grain, flour, etc.
Bail to remove water from the boat
Balance beam: The wooden or as is becoming more frequent metal arm that sticks out over the land on most lock gates. This is used to open or close the gate/s. There are even a few beams filled with concrete-filled.
Ballast A weight at the bottom of a boat to keep it stable. Ballasts can be placed inside the hull of the boat or externally in a keel.
Ballast movement a voyage or voyage leg made without any paying cargo in a vessel's tanks. To maintain proper stability, trim, or draft, sea water is usually carried during such movements.
Ballast tank compartments at the bottom of a ship or on the sides which are filled with liquids for stability and to make the ship seaworthy.
Bank full: The point at which a River's channel is full of water.
Bar A region of shallow water usually made of sand or mud.
Bar Taut: Said of a rope when it is under such tension that it is practically rigid.
Bare boat charter a charter in which the bare ship is chartered without crew; the charterer, for a stipulated sum taking over the vessel for a stated period of time,
Bare poles, to sail under To sail without any sails set
Barge flat bottomed boat designed to carry cargo on inland waterways, usually without engines or crew accommodations.
Barge A large cargo-carrying craft that is towed or pushed by a tug on both seagoing and inland waters
Barge aboard catamaran a way of loading cargo into large barges and then in turn loading the barges into a ship.
Barge carriers ships designed to carry either barges or containers exclusively, or some variable number of barges and containers simultaneously. Currently this class includes two types of vessels, the lash and the seabee.
Barge Pole: See Shaft.
Barque (also bark.) A sailing ship with three to five masts, all of them square-rigged except the after mast, which is fore-and-aft rigged
Barquentine: Sailing vessel with three or more masts. Square rigged on foremast, fore and aft rigged on all others.
Barratry Any wrongful act knowingly done by the master or crew of a vessel to the detriment of the owner of either ship or cargo; and which was done without knowledge or consent of owner or owners.
Basin Located on the side or the end of a waterway, a wider area used for the mooring, loading or unloading of boats.
Batten Light wooden or plastic inserted into a pocket in a sail to support the leech
Batten down secure hatches and loose objects both within the hull and on deck
Batten down To secure and, if necessary, tie down fittings such as hatches, for approaching bad weather
Battens thin, stiff strips of plastic or wood, placed in pockets in the leech of a sail, to assist in keeping its form
BC Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes
BDI Baltic Dry Index
Beacon: A navigation mark, they are not always lit.
Beam the width of a ship. Also called breadth.
Beam 1) The widest part of a boat.2) Abeam, at a right angle to the length of the boat.3) Sturdy wooden timbers running across the width of a boat. Used to support the deck of a wooden boat.
Beam reach a point of sail where the boat is sailing at a right angle to the wind
Beam sea a situation in which waves strike a boat from the side, causing it to roll unpleasantly
Beams Ends: Vessel said to be "on her beam ends" when she is lying over so much that her deck beams are nearly vertical.
Bear away (or bear off) to alter course away from the wind
Bear away, bear off To fall off. A boat falls off the wind when it points its bow further from the eye of the wind. The opposite of heading up.
Bear down To approach something from upwind
Bear Off: To thrust away; to hold off. Order given to bowman of boat when he is required to push boat's head away from jetty, gangway or other fixture at which boat is alongside. Order given, also, when it is required to thrust away, or hold off, an approaching object.
Bearing The direction of one object from another
Bearing off/away altering course away from the wind on any course from head to wind until the boat begins to jibe
Beat To sail on a tack toward the wind.
Beat td to sail towards the direction from which the wind blows by making a series of tacks while sailing close-hauled.
Beating Tacking. To sail against the wind by sailing on alternating tacks.
Beating To sail upwind, close hauled
Beaufort force a scale of numbers, usually from 1 to 12 (although sometimes extended to 15), which indicate wind strength. Each number represents a range of several knots of wind. Beaufort force 1 is calm, while beaufort force 12 is hurricane, i.e., 63 knots or 75 mph
Beaufort wind scale Used to gauge wind speed using observations of the winds effects on trees and other objects. LINK TO BEAUFORT SCALE TABLE
Becket A short piece of rope intended to hold something.
Becket A loop or a small eye at the end of the rope
Before the mast The area aft of the mainmast was the quarterdeck; ordinary seamen could enter the quarterdeck in performance of duty. Hence, to serve "Before the mast" means service as an ordinary sailor.
Before the wind sailing with the wind from astern, in the same direction toward which the wind is blowing
Belay To secure a line, or make fast
Below beneath the deck
Beneficial ownership designates the owner who receives the benefits or profits from the operation.
Bergy Bits: Pieces of ice, about the size of a small house, that have broken off a glacier, or from hummocky ice.
Berth (1) a place for a person to sleep. (2) a place where the ship can be secured. (3) a safe and cautious distance, such as ďWe gave the shark a wide berth.Ē
Berth cargo when a liner cargo vessel accepts extra cargo to fill up the empty space remaining.
Beset: Said of a vessel when she is entirely surrounded by ice.
BFI Baltic Freight Index
Bight a loop
Bight the part of the rope or line, between the end and the standing part, on which a knot is formed
Bight The bend or loop in a rope
Bilge the lowest part of a boat, designed to collect water that enters the boat
Bilge 1. Part of the underwater body of a ship between the flat of the bottom and the straight vertical sides. 2. Internally, the lowest part of the hull, next to the keelson.
bilge pump A mechanical, electrical, or manually operated pump used to remove water from the bilge.
Bill of lading a document by which the master of a ship acknowledges having received in good order and condition (or the reverse) certain specified goods consigned to him by some particular shipper, and binds himself to deliver them in similar condition,
Bimco Baltic and International Maritime Council
Bimcosale The Bimco standard form of bill of sale
Bimini A cover used to shelter the cockpit from the sun.
Binnacle Cabinent on deck near the wheel that holds the compass.
Bitt Any of the deck posts, often in pairs, around which lines or chains are wound and held fast.
Bitt cylindrical upright fixture to which mooring or towing lines are secured aboard ship.
Bitter end the last part of a rope or chain.the inboard end of the anchor rode.
Bitts Small posts fixed through the foredeck of a of a vessel
Black cargo cargo banned by general cargo workers for some reason. This ban could be because the cargo is dangerous or hazardous to health.
Black gang Nautical slang for the engineroom crew. Included the chief engineer, who ran the engine and supervised; oilers and wipers, who lubricated and maintained the engine; and firemen and coal-passers, who fed the steam boilers
Bleed the Monkey: Surreptitiously to remove spirit from a keg or cask by making a small hole and sucking through a straw.
Block One or more wheels with grooves in them (pulleys) designed to carry a line and change the direction of its travel. A housing around the wheel allows the block to be connected to a spar, or another line. Lines used with a block are known as tackle.
Block and tackle A combination of one or more blocks and the associated tackle necessary to give a mechanical advantage. Useful for lifting heavy loads.
Bls bureau of labor statistics, department of labor.
Board foot A unit of quantity for lumber equal to the volume of a board that is 12 by 12 by 1 inches
Boat according to the navy a small craft capable of being carried aboard a ship.
Boat hook a short shaft with a fitting at one end shaped to facilitate use in putting a line over a piling, recovering an object dropped overboard, or in pushing or fending off.
Boatswain Also bosun, bosín, boísín, and boísun, all of which are pronounced bosun. A crew member responsible for keeping the hull, rigging and sails in repair.
BOATSWAIN (BOSUN) Receives working orders for deck gang from chief mate and passes them onto AB's and ordinaries. Tantamount to foreman, he is on deck directly supervising maintenance operations.
Boatswain (bosun) the highest unlicensed rating in the deck department who has immediate charge of all deck hands and who in turn comes under the direct orders of the master or chief mate or mate.
Bobstay A stay from the bow of the boat to the end of the bowspirt
Boilers steam generating units used aboard ship to provide steam for propulsion (and) for heating and other auxiliary purposes.
Bollard A large pillar to which a boat's mooring lines may be tied.
Bolt rope a rope sewn into the luff of a sail for use in attaching to the standing rigging
Bone: Foam at stem of a vessel underway. When this is unusually noticeable she is said to "have a bone in her teeth".
Booby Hatch: Sliding cover that has to be pushed away to allow passage to or from a store room, cabin of small craft, or crew's quarters.
Boom A spar which is used to extend the foot of the sail
Boom vang A tackle secured to prevent the boom from lifting
Boom vang a wire or rope running from the boom to or near the bottom of the mast which holds the boom down. Can also be used to control any unexpected jibe.
Boomkin A small outrigger over the stern of a boat.
Boot top a painted line that indicates the designed waterline
Bore: A tidal wave with a steep front moving up an estuary or bay.
Bosun Also boatswain, bos'n, bo's'n, and bo'sun, all of which are pronounced "bow-sun." A crew member responsible for keeping the hull, rigging and sails in repair.
Bosun's chair Usually a canvas bucket seat on which a person can sit and be hoisted up the mast
bosun's chair A chair, traditionally made from a plank and rope, used to hoist workers aloft to maintain the rigging.
bosun's locker A locker where tools for maintaining the hull, rigging and sails are kept.
BOSVA† British Offshore Support Vessel Owners Association
Bound: Proceeding in a specified direction, or to a specified place.
Bouse: To heave, or haul, downwards on a rope. Originally, and strictly, heave meant an upward pull, haul meant a horizontal pull, bouse meant a downward pull: but these distinctions have not survived.
Bow The forward part of a ship
Bow line a docking line leading from the bow
Bow line: A line leading from the bow used for docking.
Bow Spring line A bow pivot line used to prevent a boat from moving forward or astern while made fast to a mooring.
Bow thrusters a propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship which turns at right angles to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a maneuvering aid.
bowlin A knot used to make a loop in a line. Easily untied, it is simple and strong. The bowline is used to tie sheets to sails
Bowline a knot used to form a temporary loop in the end of a line
Bowline knot: A knot used to form a eye or a loop, that doesn't jam and can be undone easily.
Bowse: To pull downward on a rope or fall.
Bowspirt a spar extending forward from the bow
Bow-Thruster: A small propeller mounted in the bow to push the front sideways.
BPI Baltic Panamax Index
Brash: Ice broken into pieces, about 6 ft. in diameter and projecting very little above sea level.:
Breach Said of waves that break over a vessel.
Breadth the width of the vessel
Break bulk the process of assimilating many small shipments into one large shipment at a central point so that economies of scale may be achieved; to commence discharge of cargo.
Breakbulk vessel a general, multipurpose, cargo ship that carriers cargoes of nonuniform sizes, often on pallets, resulting in labor-intensive loading and unloading; calls at various ports to pick up different kinds of cargoes.
Breakers A wave that approaches shallow water, causing the wave height to exceed the depth of the water it is in, in effect tripping it. The wave changes from a smooth surge in the water to a cresting wave with water tumbling down the front of it.
breaking seas With sufficiently strong wind, large waves can form crests even in deep water, causing the wave tops to tumble forward over the waves.
Breakwater A structure built to improve a harbor by sheltering it from waves.
Breast Mooring line leading approximately perpendicular to ship's fore and aft line.
Breast line a docking line going at approximately a right angle from the boat to the dock
Breast Rope: Mooring rope, leading from bow or quarter, at about right angles to ship's fore and aft line.
Breeches buoy A device used by lifesaving crews to extract persons from wrecked vessels
Bridge used loosely to refer to the navigating section of the vessel where the wheel house and chart room are located; erected structure amidships or aft or very rarely fore over the main deck of a ship to accommodate the wheelhouse.
Bridge hole: This is the width of a waterway under a bridge (See also Air draft & Draft).
Bridle a line or wire secured at both ends in order to distribute a strain between two points
Brig: Vessel with two masts and square rigged on both of them.
Brigantine: Originally, a ship of brigands, or pirates. Up to end of 19th century was a two-masted vessel square rigged on fore-mast and main topmast, but with fore and aft mainsail. Latterly, a two-masted vessel with foremast square rigged, and mainmast fore and aft rigged.
Brightwork varnished woodwork and/or polished metal
Bring about To change direction
BROA British Rig Owners Association
Broach to spin out of control, either causing or nearly causing a capsize.
Broaching The unplanned turning of a vessel to expose its side to the oncoming waves. In heavy seas this could cause the boat to be knocked down.
Broad reach sailing with the wind coming from any direction from abeam to on the quarter.
Brow navy term for a gangplank. Used to cross from one ship to another, and from a ship to a pier.
Buckby can: Brightly painted water can seen on many traditional narrow boats.
Bucko: A bullying and tyrannical officer.
Bulk cargo shipped in loose condition and of a homogeneous nature. Cargoes that are shipped unpackaged either dry, such as grain and ore, or liquid, such as petroleum products.
Bulk carrier ship specifically designed to transport vast amounts of cargoes such as sugar, grain, wine, ore, chemicals, liquefied natural gas; coal and oil. See also lng carrier, tanker, obo ship.
Bulkhead The walls.
Bulwark The part of a ship's side that extends above the main deck to protect it against heavy weather
Bulwarks The sides of a boat above the upper deck.
Bunk: A bed.
Bunker A storage compartment aboard a ship for coal or other fuel
Bunkers fuel consumed by the engines of a ship; compartments or tanks in a ship for fuel storage.
Buoy a floating object employed as an aid to mariners to mark the navigable limits of channels, their fairways, sunken dangers, isolated rocks, telegraph cables, and the like;
Buoyage: The act of placing buoys. 2. Establishment of buoys and buoyage systems. Applied collectively to buoys placed or established.
Buoyancy: This is a vessel's ability to stay afloat.
Burdened vessel that vessel which, according to the applicable navigation rules, must give way to the privileged vessel. The term has been superseded by the term "give-way".
Burgoo: Seaman's name for oatmeal porridge. First mentioned in Edward Coxere's Adventures by Sea" (1656)
Bushel A unit of volume (dry measure) used in the united states, equal to 32 quarts or approximately 35.2 liters
Butty: Is a none powered boat usually a narrow boat, being towed by one with an engine.
BV Bureau Veritas (classification society)
By the Board: Overboard and by the ship's side.
By the lee sailing with the wind coming from behind, and slightly to the side, that the sails are on